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En Fa

Monday 18 June 2018

Irrigation and Drainage Networks

Irrigation and drainage are part of water supply, which are seriously taken into consideration by specialists and experts due to lack of water resources. The efficient water use in agriculture and green space irrigation has recently been of focus because of modern developments in agriculture. From another level, the application of surface water  and underground water drainage has been accompanied by more advances in order to make the best and efficient use of water resources in urban developments. There are two major points presented as follows: 3-1- irrigation networks 3-2- drainage networks ( surface and sub surface)

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Irrigation Networks

To efficiently use water resources in agriculture, irrigation projects are of primary importance and therefore these are prioritized in  the official’s affairs. Water is mostly consumed in agriculture throughout the world so that a reduction in water consumption by using modern irrigation approaches plays a substantial role in water resource conservation. Irrigation utilities include structures for water storage, irrigation networks, etc. Irrigation networks are used to transfer and distribute water and collect additional water from irrigation as well as run-offs.  Irrigation networks include open or close channels, channel lets, conduits. To improve irrigation efficiency, the outlet channel and irrigation performance are of great interest.  Under pressure irrigations include drop and spray irrigation.  Equipment of irrigation is various. It can involve a range from a simple conventional system to more advanced and self-control system. In irrigation studies, we discuss climate change, meteorology, geomorphology, geotechnique, botany, paleopedology, water characteristics, etc. In addition to using ...

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Pumping Stations

Pumping stations are the heart of water and wastewater systems. There is a wide range of capacity  considered for them, spanning  small pumps which support one or two residential units and  large pumping stations to convey substantial amounts of water and wastewater. To design them, knowledge given by different engineering fields are used that we can point structural, civil, mechanical, electrical, instrumentation, architectural, geotechnique, hydraulics and surveying engineering.

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Treated Wastewater Reuse

The quality and quantity of wastewater  effluent for disposal reasons, given the receiving source are specifically important. Any receiving source has its own conditions to take the amount of effluent. Today, effluents in raw manner are absorbed by  absorbing wells, rivers, seas. The treated effluents are used for irrigation purposes, industry applications, even in producing drinking water. The use of treated effluent is greatly focused attention and is considered to be a precious source of water supply, especially in regions where there is a lack of water resources. Today, this is a debatable issue in all the facilities where water is used.  Studies conducted to reuse effluent contain a comprehensive study about the quality and quantity of effluent available. The conditions of effluent consumption depend on the requirement of quality and quantity as well as supply approaches. We study to choose the optimum method to reuse effluent in this area.

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Wastewater Treatment

Water resources and environment are polluted due to untreated wastewater release and can cause irreparable damages to environment. Industrial wastewaters containing particular pollutants can double this damage.  Although, wastewater can be naturally treated in environment, nature is not normally able to fully treat human-produced wastewaters in case of increasing wastewater volumes because of short limited time availability. Therefore, human has resulted that time of treatment is to be reduced by using different methods of treatment so that the environment is protected from damage. There are a wide variety of approaches to treat wastewater ranging from  natural to innovative and advanced methods. Wastewater treatment plants are different in size; some are small package-based for house-hold purpose while others are large and mainly used for urban and industrial wastewater treatment purposes. Consulting engineers select and propose  the optimum and appropriate alternative, in terms of economical, technical, and environmental factors by quality and quantity ...

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